William Oliver Baker Award Recipients
2019 - GEN Keith B. Alexander (USA, Retired)
General Keith B. Alexander is the longest serving director in the history of the National Security Agency, serving an unprecedented 8-1/2 years, from 2005 to 2014. While serving as Director NSA/Chief CSS, he was appointed by Congress to be the first Commander to lead U.S. Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM). Serving in this role from 2010 to 2014 he established and defined how our nation is protected against cyber-attacks. While in office, he advanced some of the most forward-thinking measures related to the production and management of intelligence for the U.S. Government. In addition, he sharpened our defense's focus on the threat of cyber-attacks against the United States and its interests, including the vulnerability of our critical infrastructure.
Prior to leading USCYBERCOM and the NSA/CSS, General Alexander served as the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, G-2, Department of the Army from 2003 to 2005; Commanding General of the U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command from 2001 to 2003; and Director of Intelligence, J-2, United States Central Command from 1998 to 2001, among many other command and staff positions.
2018 - Stephanie O'Sullivan
Ms. O’Sullivan retired from public service in January 2017, following six years in the No. 2 post in the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), where she focused on IC coordination and information sharing, as well as intelligence integration initiatives and resource challenges. She served her entire ODNI tenure under Director of National Intelligence James Clapper, the 2006 Baker Award recipient.
Prior to ODNI Ms. O’Sullivan served as associate deputy director at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). She spent 16 years overall at CIA, including four as head of the Directorate of Science and Technology (DS&T). She held various management positions in DS&T, where her responsibilities included research and development in fields ranging from power sources to biotechnology.
2017 - Robert Mueller
Mr. Mueller became the FBI’s sixth director one week prior to September 11, 2001. He is widely credited for his leadership of the Bureau in the immediate aftermath of Al Qaeda’s attacks on the U.S. homeland and beginning the FBI’s evolution from a traditional law enforcement agency to a threat-based, intelligence-led organization with responsibilities ranging from cyber threats to counterterrorism and counterintelligence.
2016 - John E. McLaughlin
John E. McLaughlin provided, supported and directed intelligence analysis at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for over three decades, serving as Acting Director of Central Intelligence shortly before his retirement in 2004. As Deputy Director for Intelligence at CIA from 1997 to 2000, McLaughlin created the Senior Analytic Service, a career track that enables CIA analysts to rise to very senior rank without branching out into management. He also founded the Sherman Kent School for Intelligence Analysis, an institution dedicated to teaching the history, mission, and essential skills of the analytic profession to new CIA employees. He served as Deputy Director of Central Intelligence from 2000 to 2004.
Earlier in his 32-year career at the agency, Mr. McLaughlin focused on European, Russian, and Eurasian issues. His public service began as a US Army Officer, completing a tour in Vietnam from 1968 to 1969. Currently Mr. McLaughlin is the distinguished practitioner in residence at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) of the Johns Hopkins University. He is chairman of the CIA Officers Memorial Foundation, which raises funds for the educational and other support of children and families who lose a parent in CIA service.
2015 - The Honorable Mike Rogers
Congressman Rogers retired from the U.S. House of Representatives at the conclusion of the 113th Congress after representing Michigan’s 8th Congressional District for 14 years. He was also a member of the Energy and Commerce Committee. Rogers is currently the host of the nationally-syndicated program Something to Think About with Mike Rogers on Westwood One. He is also a CNN national security contributor.
The Honorable Mike Rogers received the 2015 William Oliver Baker Award together with C.A. Dutch Ruppersberger for their outstanding service to the U.S. intelligence and national security communities.
2015 - C.A. Dutch Ruppersberger
Congressman Ruppersberger, who in 2003 became the first Democratic freshman ever appointed to the HPSCI, also left the committee at the conclusion of the 113th Congress. His 12-year term on the HPSCI is the longest in the committee’s history. The Congressman continues to serve Maryland’s 2nd Congressional District, which is home to the National Security Agency and U.S. Cyber Command at Fort Meade.
C.A. Dutch Ruppersberger received the 2015 William Oliver Baker Award together with the Honorable Mike Rogers for their outstanding service to the U.S. intelligence and national security communities.
2014 - Leon E. Panetta
Leon E. Panetta has served as Chairman of the Panetta Institute for Public Policy since February 27, 2013, after serving as the 23rd Secretary of Defense. A Monterey native and Santa Clara University School of Law graduate, Secretary Panetta began his distinguished public service career in 1964 as a First Lieutenant in the U.S. Army. From 1969 to 1993, Secretary Panetta served in numerous government positions from local governments to the House of Representatives. In 1993, Secretary Panetta left Congress to serve as director of the Office of Management and Budget for the incoming Clinton administration, and in 1994, he accepted appointment as the president’s chief of staff. Upon leaving the Clinton administration in 1997, Secretary Panetta joined with his wife Sylvia to establish and co-direct the Panetta Institute for Public Policy.
Leon E. Panetta received the 2014 William Oliver Baker Award for his outstanding service to U.S. intelligence and national security.
2013 - General Michael V. Hayden USAF (ret.)
General Michael V. Hayden USAF (ret.), who hails from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, began his extensive career in the defense and intelligence communities as a graduate of Duquesne University’s Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) program, where he obtained a Bachelors of Arts degree in History. After a 39-year long career with the U.S. Air Force, he was awarded the rank of General on April 22, 2005. General Hayden has held a number of senior level positions in the Intelligence Community, most notably as the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, the Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence, and the Director of the National Security Agency. Since leaving the CIA in February 2009, General Hayden has become a member of various government, public, and private sector boards, panels and commissions.
General Michael V. Hayden received the 2013 William Oliver Baker Award for his outstanding service to U.S. intelligence and national security.
2012 - The Honorable Arthur "Art" L. Money
The Honorable Arthur Money currently serves as the Chairman of the NSA Advisory Board. He was previously the Chairman of the FBI Director’s Advisory Board and also served on the Defense Science Board. Mr. Money also serves on the Board of Directors for public company KEYW and private companies EWA, Invertix, NexSan and NovoDynamics, and on the advisory boards of Boeing, Ciena, CSC, General Dynamics - AIS, Info Zen, Iridium, ManTech, Northrop Grumman, TASC, SNC and Paladin Capital Group.
His career has included positions in the Department of Defense, where he served as Assistant Secretary of Defense for Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence (ASD (C3I)), Senior Civilian Official for the ASD (C3I), and the Chief Information Officer (CIO). Mr. Money also has served the Department of the Air Force as Assistant Secretary for Research, Development and Acquisition and as CIO.
Mr. Money received the 2012 William Oliver Baker Award for his years of dedication and commitment in the defense electronics industry and the intelligence community.
2011 - The Honorable John Michael "Mike" McConnell
The Honorable Mike McConnell has previously served as the Chairman (2006-2007) and CEO of INSA. He is currently the Vice Chairman of Booz Allen Hamilton, where his primary roles include serving on the firm’s Leadership Team and leading Booz Allen’s rapidly expanding cyber business. In 2007, McConnell was asked by President George W. Bush to become the second Director of National Intelligence, serving for two years under Presidents Bush and Obama. His 29-year distinguished career as a US Naval intelligence officer included significant assignments that impacted national security issues. During Desert Shield/Storm and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Mr. McConnell served as the Intelligence Officer for the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Colin Powell, and the Secretary of Defense, Dick Cheney. From 1992 to 1996 he served as the Director of the National Security Agency (DIRNSA) under Presidents George H.W. Bush and William J. Clinton. During the same period, he also served as a member of the Director of Central Intelligence’s senior national intelligence leadership team.
Mr. McConnell is the recipient of the 2011 William Oliver Baker Award, awarded for sustained and excellent service in intelligence and national security. In addition to having been awarded many of the nation's highest military awards for meritorious service, Mr. McConnell has twice received the nation's highest award for service in the Intelligence Community, once by President Clinton and once by President George W. Bush.
2010 - The Honorable Robert M. Gates
Former Secretary of Defense Robert Gates is a retired civil servant and university president who served as the 22nd United States Secretary of Defense from 2006 to 2011. Prior to this, Gates served for 26 years in the CIA and the National Security Council, and under President George H. W. Bush as Director of Central Intelligence. Gates was also an officer in the United States Air Force and during the early part of his military career, he was recruited by the CIA. After leaving the CIA, Gates became president of Texas A&M University and was a member of several corporate boards.
He received the 2010 William Oliver Baker Award for his lifetime of achievement. He is also the recipient of 2011 Presidential Medal of Freedom and the 2012 Richardson Award.
2009 - Former Senator John Warner
Former Senator John Warner rejoined Hogan & Hartson after his decision not to seek a sixth term as U.S. Senator for the Commonwealth of Virginia. During his 30 years in the Senate, he served on the Senate Armed Services Committee, including three periods as Chairman, and was viewed as one of the most influential senators on military and foreign policy issues. At varying times, The Senator also served on the Senate Health, Education, and Pensions Committee; Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs; Select Committee on Intelligence (where he served as Vice Chairman for several years); Commerce Committee; Environment and Public Works Committee; and Rules Committee (where he served as Chair for several years).
Former Senator Warner received the 2009 William Oliver Baker Award. He was also the recipient of the 41st Distinguished Service Award on the floor of the U.S. House of Representatives.
2008 - Richard J. Kerr
Richard Kerr serves on the Board of Directors of BAE Systems, Inc., the company's wholly-owned U.S. subsidiary. Prior to his serving on the board, Mr. Kerr served in the Intelligence community for 32 years- from September 1960 until March 1992. He started as a country analyst in the CIA and ended his career as the senior professional intelligence officer in the U.S. government serving as Deputy Director of Central Intelligence.
During his career he managed a full range of CIA elements, served in all four directorates and led two of them. He also managed the community's imagery collection requirements committee, served as executive officer of the Intelligence Community Staff, and was on the staff of the Commander in Chief, U.S. Forces Pacific. He currently sits on the advisory panel for the Central Intelligence Agency, and is a frequent consultant to government and industry.
Mr. Kerr is the recipient of the 2008 William Oliver Baker Award. He has also received several awards for his public service, including the CIA Distinguished Intelligence Medal and the DOE Outstanding Service Award.
2007 - Admiral William Oliver Studeman
Admiral Studeman is retired from Northrop Grumman Corporation as Vice President and Deputy General Manager of Mission Systems (NGMS). Admiral Studeman serves on the Board of Directors of Falcon Communications, Inc., a CMEP portfolio company.
As a restricted line Naval Intelligence Officer, Admiral Studeman's flag tours included: OPNAV Director of Long Range Navy Planning, Director of Naval Intelligence, Director, National Security Agency, and Deputy Director of the CIA (with two extended periods as Acting Director of Central Intelligence). As DDCI, he served in both the Bush I and Clinton Administrations under DCI's Bob Gates, Jim Woolsey and John Deutch.
Admiral Studeman is the recipient of the 2007 William Oliver Baker Award and the AFCEA 2007 Distinguished Service Award for Intelligence Community support.
2006 - The Honorable James R. Clapper
The Honorable James R. Clapper was sworn in as the fourth Director of National Intelligence (DNI) on August 9, 2010. As DNI, Mr. Clapper leads the United States Intelligence Community and serves as the principal intelligence advisor to the President. His career began as a rifleman in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve and culminated as a lieutenant general in the U.S. Air Force and Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency. His intelligence-related positions over his 32 years in uniform included Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence at U.S. Air Force Headquarters during Operations Desert Shield/Desert Storm and Director of Intelligence for three war-fighting commands: U.S. Forces Korea, Pacific Command, and Strategic Air Command.
LTG James R. Clapper received the William Oliver Baker Award in 2006. He has also received three National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medals, two Defense Distinguished Service Medals, the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal, the Coast Guard’s Distinguished Public Service Award, the Department of Defense Distinguished Civilian Service Award, and a host of other U.S. military and foreign government awards and decorations.
2005 - Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft
Lieutenant General (LTG) Brent Scowcroft is currently the President of the Scowcroft Group; a counselor and trustee at the Center for Strategic & International Studies; and the founder, president, and resident trustee of the Forum for International Policy. LTG Scowcroft began his career in the Air Force with such varied assignments as Assistant Air Attache in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, Special Assistant to the Director of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and Professor of Russian History at West Point. He has extensive experience with the executive branch, serving as national security adviser to Presidents Gerald R. Ford and George H.W. Bush, military assistant to President Richard Nixon, and deputy assistant to the President for national security affairs to Presidents Ford and Nixon. He has also served on numerous governmental and presidential panels, such as the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future and the United Nations Secretary-General's High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change.
LTG Scowcroft received the William Oliver Baker Award in 2005 for his lifelong service to the U.S. intelligence and national security communities. He has also received the U.S. Medal of Freedom, Germany’s Grand Cross of the Order of Merit, and was appointed Honorary Knight of the British Empire.
2004 - The Honorable Joan A. Dempsey
The Honorable Joan A. Dempsey currently serves as a Senior Vice President at Booz Allen Hamilton, heading its defense business for the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Unified Commands, and defense agencies. She worked in the federal government for over 25 years, starting as a Presidential Management Intern in the Office of Naval Intelligence. She worked at the Department of Defense for 17 years and was appointed by President Bill Clinton to serve as the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence for Community Management and then by President George W. Bush as the Executive Director of the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board.
She received the William Oliver Baker Award in 2004 for her service to government. That same year, she also received an honorary doctorate from the Joint Military Intelligence College. She has also received the National Intelligence Medal of Achievement, the Intelligence Community Seal Medallion, and the Distinguished Civilian Service Award from the Secretary of Defense.
2003 - The Honorable George J. Tenet
A distinguished professor at Georgetown, the Honorable George Tenet served as the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1997 to 2004. He began his career as a legislative assistant to Senator H. John Heinz III in the mid-1980s, becoming a staff member and then staff director of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (SSCI) until 1993. Tenet then served as special assistant to the President and as senior director for intelligence programs on the National Security Council, which culminated in his appointment as CIA’s deputy director in 1995 and then as DCI in 1997 until 2004.
Tenet won the William Oliver Baker Award in 2003 for his contributions to the intelligence and national security communities. He also received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2004.
2002 - Charles E. Allen
Charles E. Allen serves as INSA’s first Senior Intelligence Advisor. In this position, Mr. Allen provides advice to the INSA Chairman, President and Board of Directors on strategy, policy, doctrine, issues and topics which serve to enhance government and private sector participation and partnership. He is also a Principal at the Chertoff Group, focusing on homeland security and counterterrorism.
Mr. Allen served for more than 40 years at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), becoming as much a legend as a respected senior official. He served as CIA’s National Intelligence Officer for Warning, Director of the National Warning Staff, National Intelligence Officer for Counterterrorism and Deputy Chief for Intelligence of CIA’s Counterterrorism Center. He also directed the DCI Hostage Location Task Force, which focused on locating American hostages held by Hezballah in Lebanon.
Mr. Allen became the principal adviser to the Director of Central Intelligence on collection management, where he revolutionized the way the various national intelligence agencies coordinate and target their activities. In the same vein, he chaired the National Intelligence Collection Board, which united all intelligence agencies under common collection strategies.
From 2005 to 2009, Mr. Allen served in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), helping develop the department’s intelligence architecture, integrating its intelligence activities and ensuring their continuous alignment with the department’s evolving priorities. He also accelerated and expanded the department’s processes for sharing intelligence with state and local security and law enforcement officials.
He was awarded the William Oliver Baker Award in 2002.
2001 - Dr. Sidney D. Drell
Dr. Sidney Drell was a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. An expert on nuclear arms, his scientific contributions in the fields of quantum electrodynamics and particle physics helped advance the idea of national reconnaissance as a space discipline. Dr. Drell has served on the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board and on the President’s Science Advisory Committee, as well as chairing the Panel on Nuclear Weapons Safety of the House Armed Services Committee, the Technology Review Panel of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, and the Senior Review Board of the Intelligence Community’s Technology Innovation Center. He also helped found the JASON Defense Advisory Group and the Center for International Security and Arms Control.
Dr. Drell received the William Oliver Baker Award in 2001 for his scientific contributions to the intelligence and national security communities. He has also received the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal, the Enrico Fermi Award, and MacArthur Foundation “genius grant,” among others.
2000 - The Honorable William J. Perry
The Honorable William J. Perry is currently a professor at Stanford University, as well as a senior fellow at the Hoover Institution and the Freeman Spogli Institute of International Studies. From 1994 to 1997, he served as the U.S. Secretary of Defense. Prior to that, he had extensive business and technology experience; as laboratory director for General Telephone and Electronics from 1954 to 1964; founder and president of ESL Inc. (1964-1977); executive vice-president of Hambrecht & Quist Inc. (1981-1985); and founder and chairman of Technology Strategies & Alliances (1985-1993). Perry also served the public as undersecretary of defense for research and engineering from 1977 to 1981 and as deputy secretary of defense from 1993 to 1994.
Perry was awarded the William Oliver Baker Award in 2000. His many other honors include Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Knight Commander of the British Empire, the Department of Defense Distinguished Service Medal, and the Arthur Bueche Medal.
1999 - Ann Caracristi
Ann Caracristi began her long career in government service as an Army cryptanalyst during World War II. She joined a predecessor organization of the National Security Agency (NSA) after the war and worked as cryptanalyst primarily with A Group, which researched Soviet issues. She served as Chief of Research and Operations of A Group from 1975 to 1980. From 1980 to 1982, Caracristi served as NSA’s Deputy Director, helping to recruit, mentor, and train future generations of intelligence professionals. Under President Bill Clinton, she was a member of the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board and consulted for the NSA Scientific Advisory Board. From 1989 to 1991, she was also the President of the Association of Former Intelligence Officers (AFIO).
Caracristi was awarded the William Oliver Baker Award in 1999 for her dedication to the intelligence and national security fields.
1998 - Dr. Jack E. Thomas
Dr. Jack E. Thomas worked in the intelligence community for over 60 years, in both military and civilian roles. He started his career in military intelligence in the Air Force (USAF) during World War II, eventually rising to a General Officer, senior intelligence officer, and USAF Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence at the Pentagon. After retiring from military service in 1969, he worked for the Director of Central Intelligence until 1978. He then consulted in the Office of the Secretary of Defense from 1978 until 2004.
Dr. Thomas was awarded the William Oliver Baker Award in 1998. He has also received the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal, the USAF Distinguished Service Medal, and the Legion of Merit, among others. Every year, the National Military Intelligence Association gives out an award in his name for a USAF-selected recipient in Exceptional Intelligence Professionalism.
1997 - Judge William H. Webster
Before serving as Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from 1978 to 1987 and as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1987 to 1991, William Webster was a practicing lawyer and federal judge. From 1949 to 1959 and again throughout much of the 1960s, Mr. Webster worked for private law firms. After a brief stint as a United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Missouri from 1960 to 1961, in 1970 he was appointed a Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri. He was elevated to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit in 1973, where he served until becoming FBI Director. He is the only person to have served as both FBI and CIA Director.
He was awarded the William Oliver Baker Award in 1997 for his dedication to public service.
1996 - Lieutenant General Sam V. Wilson, USA (Ret.)
Lieutenant General Samuel V. Wilson began his 37-year career in the military during World War II, ultimately rising through the ranks to become a highly-decorated officer. He also served in the Central Intelligence Agency’s Clandestine Services, as Assistant Commandant of the US Army's John F. Kennedy Special Warfare School, and as Deputy to the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI). From 1976 to 1977, LTG Wilson was Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), spearheading a major reorganization of the agency. He was instrumental in creating, promoting and studying counterinsurgency tactics. Starting in 1982, LTG Wilson was a professor at Hampden-Sydney College and became President of the College in 1992, a position in which he served until 2000.
He received a William Oliver Baker Award in 1996 for his contributions to the intelligence and national security communities. In addition to numerous military awards and badges, he has also received the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal and the CIA Distinguished Intelligence Medal.
1995 - The Honorable John N. McMahon
The Honorable John Norman McMahon served in the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for over 30 years, starting in 1951. He rose through the ranks quickly at the CIA, working in a variety of programs and positions, like in the U2 program. Most notably, he served as Deputy Director of Clandestine Operations from 1978 to 1981 and as Deputy Director for National Foreign Assessment from 1981 to 1982. He finished his career at the CIA by serving as the CIA’s Deputy Director, then working in the private sector at Lockheed Martin.
He received the William Oliver Baker Award in 1995 for his dedication to the intelligence and national security fields. He has also received the Distinguished Intelligence Medal.
1994 - The Honorable Dr. Robert J. Hermann
The Honorable Robert J. Hermann began his career in the Air Force after earning his PhD in electrical engineering from Iowa State University. He worked in the National Security Agency (NSA) as an Air Force officer and continued working at the NSA even after leaving the Air Force in 1959. As an NSA employee, he worked in Research and Development and the Operations Directorate, with his NSA service culminating in his position as Deputy Director for Research and Engineering. He then served as Assistant Secretary of the Air Force while – at the same time – serving as Director of the National Reconnaissance Office from 1979 to 1981. Dr. Hermann left government service in 1982, at which time he began working in the private sector.
Dr. Hermann received the William Oliver Baker Award in 1994 for his contributions to scientific and technological aspects of intelligence and national security work. He was also inducted into the NSA Hall of Fame in 2007.
1993 - Dr. Albert D. Wheelon
Dr. Albert D. Wheelon spent his career balancing between the public and private sectors. He worked on guidance systems for long range ballistic missiles and research on radio wave propagation and fluid flow while at TRW Inc. in the 1950s. In 1962, he joined the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) as Deputy Director for Science and Technology where he worked on U2 flights, Corona reconnaissance satellites, and the development of SR-71 Mach Three aircraft until 1966. At this point, he returned to the private sphere as Vice President of Engineering at Hughes Aircraft Company. He served in this capacity until 1986, when he became Executive Vice President of Hughes. From 1987 to 1988, when he retired, Dr. Wheelon was Hughes’ CEO and Chairman of the Board of Directors. For all his efforts in the private sector, he never completely exited the public sector, serving on the Defense Science Board from 1966 to 1977 and on the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board from 1983 to 1988.
Dr. Wheelon was given the William Oliver Baker Award in 1993 for his contributions to the intelligence and national security communities, particularly in the fields of science and technology. He was also the recipient of the US Distinguished Intelligence Medal in 1966 and the second RV Jones Medal in 1994.
1992 - Dr. Louis W. Tordella
Dr. Louis W. Tordella began his intelligence career during World War II, using his skills as a mathematician to help break the German Enigma code. After the war ended, he worked for Armed Forces Security Agency, the predecessor of the National Security Agency (NSA), and then at NSA itself. From 1958 to 1974, he served as NSA’s deputy director, the longest serving deputy in NSA history. As Deputy Director, he promoted the use of technology like computers in intelligence work.
He received the William Oliver Baker Award in 1992 for his service to the intelligence and national security fields. He was also the recipient of awards like the National Security Medal, the National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal and was named an Honorary Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire.
1991 - The Honorable Dr. James R. Schlesinger
The Honorable Dr. James Schlesinger began his career as an academic, teaching economics at the University of Virginia from 1955 to 1963 after receiving his PhD at Harvard. From 1963 until 1969, he was a researcher and then Director of Strategic Studies at the RAND Corporation. He joined government service in 1969 under President Nixon as assistant director of the Bureau of the Budget, focusing on the defense budget. From 1971 to 1973, he was Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission at President Nixon’s behest. He served as Director of the Central Intelligence Agency for three months in 1973, followed by his stint as Secretary of Defense from 1973 to 1975. He served as the very first head of the Department of Energy under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1979. He then moved back into the private sector, working as a senior advisor to Lehman Brothers in New York City.
Dr. Schlesinger received the William Oliver Baker Award in 1991 for his service to the intelligence and national security community of the United States.
1990 - Dr. Lew Allen
Dr. Lew Allen entered the United States Military Academy in 1942, and proceeded to distinguish himself throughout a career in the United States Air Force, specializing in nuclear physics and testing. He was eventually promoted to four-star General and became the U.S. Air Force’s tenth Chief of Staff in 1978. Prior to becoming Chief of Staff, Dr. Allen served in various capacities in the Department of Defense, including the Deputy Director for Advanced Plans in the Directorate of Special Plans for the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force, and as Director of Space Systems in the Pentagon. Dr. Allen went on to serve as a deputy to the Director of Central Intelligence in 1973 and then to become Director of the National Security Agency from 1973 - 1977.
Dr. Allen received the William Oliver Baker Award in 1990 for his leadership, and scientific contributions to the intelligence and national security community.
1989 - Admiral Bobby R. Inman, USN
Admiral Bobby R. Inman, USN, is retired from a distinguished career in the United States Navy and Intelligence Community. Admiral Inman was a consistent and steadfast leader in the Intelligence Community, serving in many capacities across the agencies. He served as Director of Naval Intelligence from 1974 – 1976, and then as Vice Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency until 1977. Admiral Inman left the Defense Intelligence Agency to become Director of the National Security Agency, where he served until 1981. From 1981 – 1982, Admiral Inman also served Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.
Admiral Inman received the William Oliver Baker Award in 1989 for his tireless commitment to U.S. intelligence and service across the Intelligence Community.
1988 - Dr. Edwin H. Land
Dr. Edwin H. Land is best known as the inventor of technology used for polarizing light, and as the co-founder of the Polaroid Corporation. Dr. Land played a major role in developing technology for intelligence gathering operations, including the optics for the U-2 spy plane during the Cold War. He also contributed to the development of spy satellites, and advised President Dwight Eisenhower in matters related to reconnaissance. Dr. Land went on to serve on both the President’s Science Advisory Committee and the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board.
Dr. Land received the William Oliver Baker Award in 1988 for his scientific contributions to the intelligence community. He was also a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963 and the National Medal of Technology in 1988.
1987 - Ambassador Richard Helms
Ambassador Richard Helms began his career in intelligence after being transferred to the Office of Strategic Services, the precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency, during World War II. Ambassador Helms helped successfully manage the critical Berlin Office during and after World War II, and was quickly promoted within the CIA, eventually serving as Director of Central Intelligence from 1966 – 1973. Ambassador Helms is credited with presiding over a period of growth and improved management within the CIA, and for his loyalty and commitment to intelligence gathering and analysis. Following his service as Director of Central Intelligence, Ambassador Helms served as Ambassador to Iran from 1973 – 1977.
Ambassador Helms received the William Oliver Baker Award in 1987 for his dedication to national security and stewardship of the U.S. Intelligence Community. He was also awarded the National Security Medal in 1983.
1986 - Ambassador Vernon A. Walters
Ambassador Vernon A. Walters served as a military intelligence officer with the United States Army, distinguishing himself through his diplomatic prowess and fluency in multiple languages. Ambassador Walters rose through the ranks of the Army throughout the 1940s and 1950s, earning the trust of Presidents Truman and Eisenhower as a valued aide as he contributed to post-war negotiations in Europe. In 1972 Ambassador Walters was appointed to serve as Deputy Director of Central Intelligence, where he served until 1976. In 1985 President Reagan appointed Ambassador Walters to serve as Ambassador to the United Nations, until 1989 when he was appointed Ambassador to Germany.
Ambassador Walters received the William Oliver Baker Award in 1986 for his skilled diplomatic contributions to national security and his decades-long devotion to the intelligence and national security community.
1985 - Senator Barry Goldwater
Senator Barry Goldwater was a Presidential candidate and five-term Senator from Arizona who focused on intelligence and national security policy. After serving the United States Air Force during World War II, Senator Goldwater won his first term in the Senate in 1952. Senator Goldwater served as Chairman of the Senate Intelligence Committee from 1981 – 1985, and as Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee from 1985 – 1987. Senator Goldwater was a staunch defender of intelligence and military programs, and spent much of his career involved in shaping national security policy. Among his major accomplishments was the 1986 Goldwater-Nichols Act, which dramatically restructured military command.
Senator Goldwater received the William Oliver Baker Award in 1985 for his steadfast support of the intelligence and national security community and dedication to promoting the nation’s security. He was also awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1986.