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Tactical Cyber Intelligence

December 2015

The fourth and final installment of the “Levels of Cyber Intelligence” series, explores tactical cyber intelligence, which addresses the daily management of cyber threat data, insights and analytics. This paper examines four areas that a public or private sector organization should consider in developing its own tactical cyber intelligence program.

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Cyber Intelligence: Preparing Today's Talent for Tomorrow's Threats

September 2015

Though essential to an organization’s cyber activities, cyber intelligence as a professional discipline is relatively emergent, particularly its unique tradecraft – a blend of technical knowledge (e.g., network operations, communications, and perhaps digital forensics or malware reverse engineering) and classic analytic skills (e.g., hypothesis and alternative testing). Cyber intelligence – assessing an adversary’s capabilities, intentions, and activities in the cyber domain – should support and inform the entirety of an organization’s network operations, including offensive and defensive processes.

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Operational Cyber Intelligence

October 2014

The third white paper in the “Levels Of Cyber Intelligence” series – While much attention has been paid to cyber attacks against organizations of all sizes and from across all sectors, there has been less discussion of how organizations can strengthen their risk management processes in such a diverse and evolving threat climate. Operational cyber intelligence encompasses an understanding of both tactical means – how cyber threats function to disrupt and/or degrade an organization’s networks and cyber capabilities – and the broader strategic motivations of potential adversaries.

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After Action Report: Homegrown Violent Extremism Homeland Security Exercise

September 2014

In April 2014 the INSA Homeland Security Intelligence Council conducted a tabletop exercise to examine the current response procedures and information sharing policies amongst government, law enforcement, the private sector and the public in the context of a homegrown violent extremist (HVE) threat. More than a dozen government and law enforcement agencies participated in the tabletop exercise.

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IC ITE: Industry Perspectives

September 2014

Following its February 2013 white paper on the Intelligence Community Information Technology Enterprise (IC ITE), IC ITE – Doing in Common What Is Commonly Done, the INSA IC ITE Task Force conducted four panel discussions on areas identified as essential to IC ITE’s success: the governance model, the business model, security and risk management, technology and innovation.

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Smart Change II: Preparing the Intelligence Community Workforce for an Evolving Threat and Fiscal Environment

May 2014

Current budget realities make clear that resources available for intelligence activities will continue to decline in the near-term. Since the publication of the INSA white paper Smart Change in May 2011, the IC has experienced the initial effects of sequestration, the furlough of some parts of the workforce, contract employees unable to perform important services without government supervision, a 16-day government shutdown, and the realities of a significantly reduced budget—all at a time when threats to the U.S. remain undiminished. These challenges reinforce the compelling need for the IC to continue its efforts to improve community-wide strategic workforce planning and management.

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Strategic Cyber Intelligence

March 2014

The Intelligence and National Security Alliance (INSA) Cyber Intelligence Task Force defined the strategic, operational, and tactical levels of Cyber Intelligence in its white paper The Operational Levels of Cyber Intelligence. While much attention has been directed towards the tactical, on-the-network cyber domain, this paper contends that not enough resources have been devoted to strategic cyber intelligence.

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Leveraging Emerging Technologies in the Security Clearance Process

March 2014

Recent compromises of U.S. government national security information highlight the need to focus on the periodic reinvestigation (PR) process and make fundamental improvements. Policy makers have a unique opportunity to make long overdue adjustments to the security clearance process.

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A Preliminary Examination of Insider Threat programs in the U.S. Private Sector

September 2013

With Executive Order 13587 in 2011, the Federal government demonstrated increased attention to its insider threat mitigation programs. However, no mandates, standards, or benchmarks exist for insider threat programs in the private sector. Therefore, it is difficult for companies to assess where their insider threat mitigation strategies stand relative to broader industry. The purpose of this report is to provide a preliminary examination of insider threat programs in the U.S. private sector.

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Operational Levels of Cyber Intelligence

September 2013

The purpose of this paper is to explore Cyber Intelligence as a disciplined methodology with understandable frames of reference in the form of operational levels. It seeks to inform both government and private industry, with an appreciation for the fact that not all of the relevant decision makers at various organizations levels will share a common view of the challenges associated with conducting business or operations in cyberspace, nor how to best thwart adversarial activity.

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Emerging Science and Technologies: Securing the Nation through Discovery and Innovation

April 2013

U.S. investment in fundamental research, which enhances national security and spurs economic growth, has declined relative to other countries. While the U.S. continues to maintain a position of leadership, in recent decades the gap between the U.S. and potential competitors has narrowed, largely as the result of concerted investments in science and technology in Asia and Europe.

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IC ITE – Doing in Common What is Commonly Done

February 2013

Budget pressures and mission requirements, including the need to more efficiently share information, are driving the development of an Intelligence Community Information Technology Enterprise (ICITE). This paper, the first component in what will soon be an INSA white paper, explores the intent and perspective of IC leaders as the new IT environment is developed. “IC ITE – Doing in Common what is Commonly Done” refers to the transition from an agency-centric IT model, to a shared-services model that more fully integrates IC capabilities and promises to generate considerable cost savings. Although acknowledging that major challenges will continue to emerge, this paper presents a decidedly optimistic view of the future from the government perspective. Future papers will continue to explore the challenges and opportunities of IC ITE from an industry perspective, examining how industry addresses IT issues in their own enterprises, and the challenges they foresee for the IC.

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Expectations of Intelligence in the Information Age

December 2012

Currently, the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC) still lives largely in the world of secrets defining intelligence and, in the years to come, it will either embrace a new understanding of intelligence and knowledge, or risk marginalizing analysts from this century’s knowledge revolution. Expectations of Intelligence in the Information Age looks at issues and potential expectations that both the IC and policy makers will need to address as U.S. national security affairs evolve. It is the conclusion of the Task Force that the heightened expectations of decision makers for timely strategic and current intelligence can be addressed by the IC through “open sourcing” of information while maintaining an appropriate level of traditional intelligence operations. The paper calls for the formation of a coalition to consider ways to resolve the practical issues associated with the collection, analysis, validation, integration and dissemination of openly sourced intelligence while protecting privacy and civil liberties.

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Cloud Computing: Risks, Benefits, and Mission Enhancement for the Intelligence Community

March 2012

This white paper, written by INSA's Cyber Council’s Cloud Computing Task Force, is the culmination of a study of technologies, issues, requirements and observations on the topic of cloud computing in the national security space.  This paper looks at the broad area of cloud computing as it is being implemented by some of the nation's greatest thought leaders on the topic, including lead architects at IC agencies and ODNI, as well as their partners in the private sector.  The paper's conclusions focus on the lifecycle implications of implementing a cloud computing architecture, the importance of learning from implementation partners in academia and the private sector, and the principal concern of maintaining mission focus and security as a cloud business model is developed. 

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Next Steps for Security Reform: Industry Proposals to Enhance Efficiency and Reduce Costs in National Security Contracts

December 2011

This white paper by INSA’s Security Clearance Reform Task Force addresses the costly delays related to security clearances and recommends actions which could save hundreds of millions in taxpayer dollars.  It seeks to energize the dialogue on security policy and the reforms needed to achieve a streamlined, cost effective process that enables more efficient collaboration between the government and industry contractors. The suggestions are geared toward industry helping government maximize protection for national security programs and information, and building on the progress of the past several years to improve the maintenance of a trusted contractor workforce that can accomplish more but cost less. 

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Cyber Intelligence: Setting the landscape for an emerging discipline

September 2011

This white paper by INSA’s Cyber Council seeks to set the stage for a potential new type of intelligence --- cyber intelligence --- by discussing why it is necessary and exploring ideas on how to approach the development of this function in the cyber domain. The paper assesses the current cyber threat dynamic, the overarching costs of cyber attacks and security, and the need for a more strategic approach to this evolving threat. 

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Intelligence to Protect the Homeland: Taking stock ten years later and looking ahead

September 2011

This paper from INSA’s Homeland Security Intelligence Council examines the crucial role of homeland security intelligence and its incorporation into our country’s intelligence architecture. The Council’s analysis provides a definition of homeland security intelligence; discusses the nature of the Homeland Security Intelligence Enterprise including groups from the federal, state, local tribal, private and grassroots levels and ideas for how to better connect them; and emphasizes the principle that homeland security intelligence practitioners have a dual mission to ensure security and to protect civil liberties. 

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SMART Change: Lessons of the Past, Direction for the Future

May 2011

An INSA paper that examines the potential impact of budget cuts on three major areas: manpower, acquisition, and organization. Drawing on lessons learned from the 1990s, the paper develops recommendations to assist policy makers and IC leaders as they likely face more constrained fiscal realities.

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Organizational Conflicts of Interest: An Analysis of Public and Private Perspectives

March 2011

An INSA paper exploring the application of OCI regulation and impacts of the WSARA on the IC. The paper makes three recommendations acknowledging the need for agencies to tailor their policies to their respective needs and calling for regular discourse on OCI issues between industry and the IC under leadership provided by the DNI.

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Intelligence Community Acquisition & Development

Fall 2010

A joint AFCEA/INSA white paper regarding the acquisition and development of technology programs in the national security community, with an effort to contribute to the ongoing national discussion regarding ways to strengthen the Intelligence Community. AFCEA and INSA, working collaboratively, are prepared to provide the setting for discussions and facilitate the process.

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Addressing Cyber Security Through Public - Private Partnership: An Analysis of Existing Models

November 2009

An INSA white paper reviewing historical models for public private partnership and outlining an approach to cyber security based on private-public collaboration and coordination.

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Counterintelligence for the 21st Century

September 2009

An INSA paper to help frame the debate on an issue of high priority to US national security. The paper identifies six major challenges that the DNI faces in the future and makes ten recommendations to begin fixing CI.

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Critical Issues for Cyber Assurance Policy Reform

March 2009

An INSA paper in support of the presidentially commissioned task to conduct a comprehensive cyber security study. The paper used three question sets to frame the debate and made recommendations for each question set. 

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Critical Issues for Intelligence Acquisition Reform

October 2008

An INSA paper providing industry’s assessment of the Intelligence Community acquisition process. The paper identifies eight areas of concern that are critical to the creation of an efficient acquisition process responsive to the nation’s intelligence needs and proposes five recommendations to address these issues. 

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Improving Security While Managing Risk

October 2007

An INSA paper on transforming the government’s personnel security system to make it work better, faster and more efficiently. The paper makes six recommendations to dramatically improve and enhance the way personnel security works.

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